Pineapple Update


Kaua'i pineapple chunks

October 9, 2017: Kaua'i pineapple cut into chunks. The fruit was very sweet with low acidity. The brix reading was 17%.

A ripe Kaua'i White Sugarloaf

October 9, 2017: Harvested Kaua'i White Sugarloaf. This variety is green with yellow eyes when ripe.

Queen Victoria in the red bud flowering stage

September 1, 2017: Queen Victoria in the red bud flowering stage.

Kaua'i Sugarloaf in fruit

September 1, 2017: Kaua'i Sugarloaf with fruit and large sucker. The fruit should be ready to harvest around October.

Natal Queen pineapple chunks

July 30, 2017: Natal Queen fruit cut into chunks.

Natal Queen pineapple

July 30, 2017: Natal Queen fruit harvested from plant. It weighed 1 pound, 7oz. The fruit was pleasantly sweet, moderately juicy, and crunchy

Queen Victoria

July 29, 2017: Queen Victoria has reached flowering size. It was forced with calcium carbide.

Natal Queen pineapple with ripe fruit

July 29, 2017: Natal Queen pineapple with ripe fruit.

Group B pineapples growing under LED lights

July 23, 2017: Group B pineapples (3 White Jade, 1 Kaua'i Sugarloaf, 1 Queen Victoria) are now growing under LED lighting. The T5HO lighting fixture was replaced with two Diamond Series XML 150.

Spanish Samoa fruit cut in half.

July 1, 2017: Spanish Samoa pineapple cut in half.

Harvested Spanish Samoa pineapple

July 1, 2017: Spanish Samoa pineapple harvested. It weighed 1 lb 10 ounces.

Harvested Cayenne Hilo pineapple

June 27, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple cut in half. The fruit was slightly overripe with perfect sugar/acid balance. The Brix reading was 15.4%

Harvested Cayenne Hilo pineapple

June 27, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple harvested from plant. It weighed 4 lbs 3.8 ounces or almost 2 kilos.

refractometer

June 25, 2017: This instrument, called a refractometer or Brix meter, is used in the agricultural industry to check the quality of fruits and vegetables. It measures the total of sugars, minerals, and other dissolved solids in the juice as a percentage. Ripe and nutrient dense fruits and vegetables will have the highest reading. For pineapple, a Brix measurement of 12 is poor, 14 is average, 20 is good, and 22 is excellent.

Cayenne Hilo pineapple with ripening fruit

June 24, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple with ripening fruit.

Kaua'i Sugarloaf pineapple

June 17, 2017: Kaua'i Sugarloaf spiral flower cluster.

Natal pineapple with developing fruit and 2 suckers.

June 17, 2017: Natal pineapple with developing fruit and two suckers.

Spanish Samoa

May 31, 2017: Spanish Samoa pineapple will be ready to harvest in July.

Cayenne Hilo pineapple in fruit.

May 5, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple will be ready to harvest in late June.

Spanish Samoa pineapple fruit developing after flowering stage.

April 1, 2017: Spanish Samoa pineapple fruit developing after flowering stage.

Cayenne Hilo pineapple fruit developing after flowering stage.

April 1, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple fruit developing after flowering stage.

Cayenne Hilo pineapple in flowering stage

February 23, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple in the flowering stage.

Group A pineapple plants

February 23, 2017: Spanish Samoa pineapple flowered without being forced.

Group A pineapple plants

December 24, 2016: Group A pineapples ( 1 Queen Victoria, 1 Cayenne Hilo, 1 Natal, 1 Spanish Samoa, 1 Kaua'i Sugarloaf) are growing under two LED Diamond Series XML 150 fixtures.

Group B pineapple plants

December 24, 2016: Group B pineapples (3 White Jade, 1 Kaua'i Sugarloaf, 1 Queen Victoria) are growing under a T5HO 5000K fluorescent fixture (6 bulbs).

Cayenne Hilo pineapple plant

December 14, 2016: This Cayenne Hilo pineapple plant was forced with calcium carbide.


White Jade pineapple plant

November 6, 2016: This White Jade pineapple will be ready to harvest in late December or early January.


White Jade fruit harvest

November 6, 2016: White Jade pineapple fruit harvested.


White Jade plants with fruit

October 21, 2016: White Jade pineapple plants in fruit for the first time.


Kauai Sugarloaf harvested

October 11,2016: Harvested Kaua'i Sugarloaf fruit weighing 3 pounds.


White Jade Inflorescence

June 22, 2016: White Jade inflorescence


Kaua'i Sugarloaf Inflorescence

May 27, 2016: Kaua'i Sugarloaf inflorescence appeared about 40 days after forcing.


Whie Jade Pineapple

May 1, 2016: This White Jade pineapple plant was forced on May 5th.


Gold Extra Sweet

February 27, 2016: Gold Extra Sweet fruit was harvested. It weighed 3.5 pounds.


Cayenne Hilo

November 8, 2015: Cayenne Hilo transplanted to 5 gallon pot. It will reach flowering size in Fall 2016.


Queen Victoria crown

November 8, 2015: Queen Victoria crown planted in 1/2 gallon pot.


White Jade pineapple plants

November 6, 2015: White Jade plants will reach flowering size in late Spring 2016.


Gold Hybrid inflorescence

November 3, 2015: Gold Hybrid inflorescence


Queen Victoria fruit cut in half

October 23, 2015: Queen Victoria fruit cut in half.


Queen Victoria harvested

October 23, 2015: Queen Victoria harvested.


Kauai White Sugarloaf fruit cut in half.

September 25, 2015: Kaua'i White Sugarloaf fruit cut in half.


Kaua'i Sugarloaf with fruit

July 13, 2015: Kaua'i Sugarloaf with fruit.


Kaua'i Sugarloaf flowering

June 5, 2015: Kaua'i Sugarloaf flowering.


Sugarloaf fruit cut in half

May 31, 2015: A slightly overripe Sugarloaf fruit cut in half.


Me holding harvested Sugarloaf fruit.

May 31, 2015: Harvested Sugarloaf fruit.


Sugarloaf plant with ripe fruit.

May 31, 2015: Sugarloaf plant with ripe fruit.


Queen Victoria growing under LED lights

May 2, 2015: This Queen Victoria plant has reached flowering size. It will be forced in June.


Pineapples growing under LED lighting

January 23, 2015: Pineapples growing under Diamond Series XML 150 LED lighting system by Advance LED Lights.


Sugarloaf Inflorescence

January 23, 2015: Sugarloaf inflorescence


Young pineapples

January 24, 2015: (clockwise from top) Cultivade Parana Pichuna, Cayenne Hilo, Spanish Samoa, and Natal are growing well under LED lights.


White Jade

December 17, 2014: Kaua'i Sugarloaf growing very well. It will reach flowering size by April 2015.


White Jade

October 27, 2014: White Jade transplanted to 5 gallon pot.


Pineapple germplasm starts

October 27, 2014: Cultivade Parana Pichuna, Cayenne Hilo, Spanish Samoa, and Natal were transplanted to 1/2 gallon pots.


Queen Victoria

October 25, 2014: Queen Victoria will reach flowering size by May 2015.


Sugarloaf

July 27, 2014: Sugarloaf will reach flowering size by November 2014.


Kaua'i Sugarloaf

July 26, 2014: Kaua'i Sugarloaf will reach flowering size by April 2015.


Gold Pineapple

July 26, 2014: Gold fruit was harvested fully ripened. It was very sweet and juicy!


Pineapple Germplasm

June 25, 2014: Cayenne Hilo, Cultivade Parana Pichuna, Spanish Samoa, and Natal


Gold crown growing in 5 gallon pot

June 18, 2014: Gold crown growing well in 5 gallon pot. It should reach flowering size by June 2015.


White Jade pineapple plants

June 7, 2014: White Jade pineapple plants growing in 1/2 gallon pots. Due to their size, plants will take approximately 2 years to reach maturity.


Gold sucker plant

June 7, 2014: Gold sucker plant with fruit growing in a 5 gallon bucket.


Gold crown planted in 5 gallon pot

April 11, 2014: A large gold crown was planted in a 5 gallon pot.


Harvested Gold fruit

March 26, 2014: Gold fruit was harvested. It had the perfect balance of sugar and acid.


Queen Victoria

March 23, 2014: Since this Queen Victoria plant was started from a very small crown in 2013, it may take 24 months or more to reach flowering size.


My pineapple collection

March 20, 2014: I moved my pineapple plant collection to my new home.


Sugarloaf in fruit

October 7, 2013: Next year's crop will be borne on these two Gold Hybrid pineapple plants.


Sugarloaf in fruit

October 7, 2013: Sugarloaf fruit was harvested from plant. The fruit was very sweet with white to pale yellow, soft flesh.


Kaua'i Sugarloaf with side shoot

October 3, 2013: Kaua'i Sugarloaf offshoot growing vigorously.


Kaua'i Sugarloaf crown

August 6, 2013: This crown was taken from a Kaua'i White Sugarloaf fruit I ordered online from Hawaii. Since the growing point was removed ( crown gouging ), this crown will have to sprout side shoots from the leaf axils to grow.


Kona Sugarloaf with fruit

July 29, 2013: Sugarloaf fruit is gradually increasing in size.


Gold crown doing extremely well.

July 7, 2013: Gold crown doing extremely well.


Gold sucker plant growing well.

July 7, 2013: Gold sucker plant growing well.


Flowering has ceased and fruit development has begun.

July 4, 2013: Flowering has ceased and fruit development has begun.


Sugarloaf plant with inflorescence in center.

June 24, 2013: Sugarloaf plant flowering. Notice the small shoots (slips ) growing below on the peduncle. These slips were later removed so more energy can go into fruit development.


Six slips removed from plant.

June 27, 2013: Six slips were removed.


Gold sucker and Gold crown

April 27, 2013: Gold sucker (left) and Gold crown (right). The sucker plant should reach flowering size in March 2014. The crown should be ready to flower in January 2014.


Huge sugarloaf plant

March, 2013: Huge sugarloaf plant will be ready for forcing in May 2013.


Gold crown growing well

March, 2013: Gold crown growing well.


A newly planted Gold Extra Sweet pineapple crown

October 27, 2012: This Gold crown from the previous harvest was planted in a 3 gallon pot.


Gold Extra Sweet pineapple plant with ripe fruit

October 19, 2012: Gold pineapple fruit is ready to be harvested!


Gold Extra Sweet pineapple plant with fruit

Picture taken September 8, 2012


Gold Extra Sweet pineapple plant

July 26, 2012: Gold pineapple has finished flowering and fruit development has begun!


Gold Extra Sweet pineapple plant in flower

July 3, 2012: Gold pineapple has started flowering.


New Sugarloaf plant

I bought this large Sugarloaf plant in May 2012. It was transplanted to a 12" (5 gallon) pot.


Gold Extra Sweet pineapple crown

Gold Extra Sweet (MD-2 hybrid) April 22, 2012. This mature plant measures over 4 feet wide and 31" high. It was forced on May 14 with calcium carbide.




Plant Description


Pineapple Collection 2015.

Pineapple Collection 2015


The pineapple (Ananas comosus) belongs to the bromeliaceae family. It is a terrestrial (soil growing) bromeliad, and it is native to the tropical and warm subtropical regions of Brazil and Paraguay.

The pineapple is a slow-growing, herbaceous, perennial. It has a short stem which is covered by long, narrow, sword-shaped leaves arranged in a rosette pattern. Some varieties have spines along the leaf edges. The plant grows about 3 feet (100cm) in height and spreads up to 6 feet (183cm). A large plant can have as many as 80 leaves. At the time of flowering, a flower stalk appears from the plant's center bearing a reddish cone-shaped leaf cluster. A purple, red, or lavender flower appears between each leaf. Flowering starts from the bottom and progresses towards the top. No special pollination is required. The fruit is seedless; however, if two different varieties are grown near each other, the cross pollination produces tiny black seeds. The fruit slowly develops and ripens in 4 to 5 months after flowering.


Crown Preparation



Queen Victoria crowns


Sugarloaf crown


Obtain a pineapple fruit that has an unbruised, dark green leafy crown. Hold the fruit and grab the crown at the base and remove it by twisting it off. Pull a few of the bottom leaves off until 3/4" to 1" ( 1.9 to 2.5cm) of the stem is exposed. Along the exposed stem, roots will form. Set the crown aside for a few days in a warm, airy place out of direct sunlight until a callous forms. After that, the crown is ready to be planted.

Planting

Plant crown in a 5 gallon pot. Any soil mix that is well-drained, moisture retentive, and acidic with a high organic matter content can be used. Gently firm the soil up around the crown's base to support it. Move to a warm, bright area with filtered sunlight. Keep the soil moist, not wet. About 4 to 8 weeks later, the leaves will begin to grow out. Gradually introduce to full sun.

Fertilizing

Pineapple plants respond well to regular fertilizer applications to the soil and/or foliage. Pineapples have a high demand for nitrogen and potassium especially during the flowering and fruiting cycle. Apply a 10-6-10 or similar slow release, non-burning dry fertilizer with trace elements to the soil every 3 months. Foliar applications should be sprayed on the leaves every 3 weeks.

Watering

There seems to be a common misconception that all bromeliads like water poured in the center of the plant. This is NOT true! The "tank" bromeliads, like Aechema fasciata, need water held in the center. When water remains in the center of a pineapple plant, it can lead to rot. Water the soil thoroughly until it drains into the bottom saucer. Don't let water stand in saucer. Allow the soil to dry slightly between waterings.

Bromeliads like the pH of the water to be slightly acidic. Check with your local water department to find out about the pH. If your water is hard (alkaline), add 2 tsp of vinegar per gallon of water.

Temperature/Humidity

Pineapples enjoy evenly warm temperatures all year long. A warm growing environment with a daily average temperature between 75°F (24°C) and 80°F (26°C) is optimal for excellent growth and fruiting. Move plants outdoors when both days and nights are consistently warm. Plants can tolerate occasional lows in the 50's (10°C - 15°C), but prefer 60's (16°C - 20°C). Highs should be 75°F to 90°F (24°C to 32°C). When temperatures reach 90°F (32°C) or more, plants should be placed in filtered sunlight to avoid sunburn.

Humidity can be a problem indoors during the heating season. The humidity level should be maintained around 50%. A room humidifier placed on a timer provides an effective way of maintaining humidity levels.

Light



Sugarloaf fruiting under T5HO fixture


Plants growing under T5HO fixture

Plants are grown under a six bulb T5 high output fluorescent lighting fixture.


Having adequate light indoors is absolutely essential for good growth and fruiting. Pineapple plants require at least 12 hours of bright light a day. Artificial lighting can be used as the only light source or a supplementation to natural daylight.

High intensity discharge, T5 high output, and LED lighting systems are excellent choices for growing pineapples. Check out my online garden suppliers page.

When it is time for your pineapple plant to go outdoors for the summer or indoors for the winter, it needs to be acclimated to its new environment. The plant should gradually be introduced to more shade over a period 3 weeks before going indoors. When going outdoors, place plant under a shade cloth or in an area that only receives the weak morning or evening sun. Over a period of 3 weeks, gradually introduce to more sunlight.

Pruning

When leaves start getting out of bounds, prune them back with a sharp pair of scissors. Cut the leaf straight across then shape the cut like an arrow. This will make the pruned leaf look more natural. To remove yellowing and dead leaves, split them straight down the middle and pull apart from the stem.

Pests and Diseases

Indoor pineapple plants are not usually bothered by many pests or diseases. However, mealy bugs and scale insects do attack them. These pests can be effectively controlled by using a 1% to 2% light horticultural oil spray or neem oil.

Fungus gnats can be a real nuisance indoors. They love damp areas and moist soil rich in organic matter. The adults fly around and lay eggs in the soil. Then a few days later, the larvae emerge damaging young roots. There are two effective controls: biological, Gnatrol WDG, and predatory mites, Hypoaspis, that feed on gnat larvae.

Diseases that appear on indoor pineapple plants are sometimes due to incorrect cultural practices. Overwatering can cause root rot. Heart rot can happen if water is poured and allowed to stay in the plant's center for long periods of time. Leaves staying wet from misting without adequate air circulation can encourage leaf spot disease if spores are present.

Anthracnose is a fungal disease which attacks the leaves. When conditions are favorable ( cool and wet ), it first appears as a brown patch or streak on the underside of the leaf. Then, the leaf's surface becomes discolored with pale yellow to brown spots. An effective preventative and control for this disease is neem oil.


Troubleshooting Pineapples
Symptoms Probable Causes Solutions
Leaf edges curl under Low humidity, underwatering, acclimation Buy humidifier to increase relative indoor humidity, water when the top 2" (5cm) of soil is moderately dry, gradually introduce plant to new environment
Brown spots on leaves Fertilizer burn, salts in water Fertilizer should be slow release, use distilled water or clean rainwater
Small brown or black lesions on leaves Fungal infection, Anthracnose Cool, wet conditions favor growth, avoid wetting leaves, temps above 80°F retard fungal growth, use neem oil or biofungicide
No plant growth Cool temps, underwatering, overwatering, low light or not enough light A mean temp between 75°F (24°C) and 80°F (26°C) is optimal for excellent growth, check rootball, water when the top 2" (5cm) of soil is moderately dry, move to brighter area
Brown leaf tips Low humidity, fertilizer burn, underwatering Buy humidifier to increase humidity, fertilizer should be slow release to avoid burning, water when the top 2" (5cm) of soil is moderately dry
Fruit not large  Plant was forced to bloom when young, inadequate leaf surface  Force bloom when the plant has a minimum of 35 mature leaves on it. Plant should measure 2 to 4 feet across depending on variety. This insures a decent fruit size.  
Yellowish, white, or red spots on leaves  Mealy bugs or scale insects Look for pests in the leaf axils and treat with a light oil spray or neem oil. 
Lower leaves yellow and dry up  Underwatering, rootbound, acclimation (high light to low light), dimming artificial light   Water when the top 2" (5cm) of soil is moderately dry, check rootball and repot if necessary, gradually introduce plant to a new environment, change light bulb  
Yellow-green leaves  Nitrogen deficiency, root rot, improper acclimation- low light to high light   Use a 2-1-2 ratio fertilizer preferable organic, check rootball and let it moderately dry out between waterings, gradually introduce plant to a new environment  


Flowering and Fruiting


Kaua'i pineapple red bud stage

There are six stages of pineapple flower development. Stage 1: Red bud stage.


Gold pineapple blooming

This is stage 2: High cone stage. Peduncle grows from the center.


Kaua'i pineapple blooming

This is stage 3: Flowering at the base.


Kaua'i pineapple blooming
This is stage 4: Flowering in the middle.


Kaua'i pineapple blooming
This is stage 5: Flowering at the top.


Kaua'i pineapple finished blooming
This is stage 6: Dried flowers


Natural flowering in mature pineapple plants can be influenced by day length, cool temperatures, or water stress. The type of propagating material used can also be a factor, especially for indoor growers. Plants propagated from suckers tend to flower more freely. Under general indoor cultivation, pineapple plants seldom flower on their own.

The flowering cycle can be initiated through a technique known as "forcing". Forcing can be achieved by using plant growth regulators, calcium carbide, acetylene gas, or ethylene gas.

Chemical growth regulators such as Ethephon, Florel, and Omaflora are used commercially. These chemicals are mixed with water and sprayed on the plants.

Calcium carbide is sensitive to moisture and needs to be handled with caution. A small bean-sized lump of calcium carbide is added to the plant's center, then water is added. A violent reaction takes place releasing acetylene gas into the water and air. This gas is flammable and smells like garlic.

Ethylene gas is produced naturally from apples, pears, peaches, and other fruits. To maximize ethylene exposure, place ripening fruit at base of plant for one week.

After forcing is done, center leaf production ceases and the flower cycle begins. Approximately 40 to 60 days later, a flower cluster should appear in the plant's center.

Forcing is most effective when done during cool to moderate temperatures (60's to low 70's/16°C-23°C) and at night.


Harvesting


'Gold Hybrid fruit

Sugarloaf pineapple fruit harvested in October 2013.



'Gold Hybrid fruit

Sugarloaf pineapple sliced in half and crown.



'Gold Hybrid fruit

Gold Hybrid pineapple fruit harvested in October 2012.



For maximum sweetness and flavor, it is best to pick the fruit when it is fully ripe. Once the fruit is harvested, it will not improve in quality! Depending upon the variety grown, a ripe pineapple can either be yellow-orange, orange-red, yellow, red, green, or purple. To harvest fruit, use a sharp knife or pruning shears and cut stalk one inch below the fruit.


Propagation



Gold mother plant producing suckers

Gold mother plant with one large and one small sucker growing at the plant's base.


Harvested slip

This slip was growing from the fruit's base.


sucker shoot

A sucker growing from the mother plant.


Harvested sucker

Harvested sucker cut from plant.


Harvested sucker

Healthy roots have begun to form at the base.


Mother plant root system

Healthy root system of the mother plant.


Pineapple plants, like all bromeliads, slowly fade away after flowering. Before this happens, the plants will produce one or more types of leafy offshoots: crowns, slips, suckers, and ratoons. Crowns are shoots which grow on the tops of the pineapple fruits. Slips are shoots which grow on the flowering stalk. Suckers are shoots which originate from the leaf axil on the stem above ground, and ratoons are suckers that grow from the stem below soil level.

Crowns should be the first type of propagating material used if you want to establish new plants quickly. Suckers and ratoons are generally larger, stronger, and bear fruits sooner. Remove suckers with a sharp, serrated knife when they're at least half the size of the mother plant. Plant suckers the same way as crowns. Slips can be numerous on some pineapple varieties, like as Sugarloaf. If you want your fruit to be as large as possible remove them before they fully develop. If you want more plants, allow them to grow at least 4 to 6 inches (10 cm to 15 cm ) before removal.


Varieties 


There are hundreds of pineapple varieties but only a few dozen are good enough to be grown on a commercial scale. There are four group classifications a pineapple variety can fall into: Pernambuco, Spanish, Queen, or Cayenne. Each group has some characteristics that are different than the other and there are some differences within the groups as well.

Cayenne or Smooth Cayenne
This plant is large with nearly spineless leaves that take on a reddish coloration in strong light. It can bear fruit weighing up to 6 lbs ( 3 kilos ). The fruit has a good balance of sugar and acid. Cayenne is the main processing and canning variety.

Cayenne Hilo
This plant is large with more spines on the leaves than Smooth Cayenne. The leaves develop a reddish coloration in strong light. It can bear fruit weighing up to 6 lbs ( 3 kilos ). The fruit has a yellow shell and strong fragrance when ripe. It has an excellence balance of sugar and acid. The flesh is yellow, soft, slightly translucent and very juicy. Outstanding for fresh eating!

Gold Extra Sweet (MD-2 Hybrid)
This variety is a hybrid of Smooth Cayenne. It has become the commercial standard in the industry. The plant is large and vigorous with nearly spineless, stiff leaves. The fruit can weigh up to 4 lbs ( 2 kilos ), and it has an yellow-orange shell when ripe. The flesh is yellow, very sweet, juicy and low in acid. Outstanding for fresh eating! Highly recommended!

Maui Gold (MD-1 or CO-2 Hybrid)
This variety is a hybrid of Smooth Cayenne. This variety is grown exclusively on a commercial scale in Hawaii. The plant is large and vigorous with nearly spineless, stiff leaves. The fruit can weigh up to 4 lbs ( 2 kilos ), and it has an yellow-orange shell when ripe. The flesh is yellow, very sweet, juicy and low in acid. Outstanding for fresh eating! Highly recommended!

Natal Queen
This plant is small and compact with spiny leaves that become tinged with a reddish-purple coloration in strong light. The fruit weighs up to 2 lbs ( 1 kilo ) and has a golden-yellow shell when ripe. The flesh is yellow, sweet, moderately juicy, and pleasantly crisp. It stores very well. Good for fresh eating.

Red Spanish
This variety is grown mostly in the Caribbean. The plant is medium-sized, vigorous with spiny leaves that become tinged with a reddish coloration in strong light. The fruit has an orange-red shell when ripe and can weigh 2 to 4 lbs ( 1 to 2 kilos ). The flesh is pale yellow, pleasantly sweet, moderately acidic, fragrant, and rich.

Josapine
This Malaysian variety is a hybrid between Spanish and Smooth Cayenne. The plant is medium-sized, vigorous with nearly spineless leaves that become tinged with a purple in strong light. The fruit has an orange-red shell when ripe and can weigh around 2 lbs ( 1 kilo ). The flesh is yellow, pleasantly sweet, low acid, and fragrant.

Abacaxi
This variety is grown mostly in Brazil. The plant is vigorous with spiny leaves that become tinged with a reddish coloration in strong light. The fruit is conical-shaped and can weigh up to 6 lbs. When ripe, the shell color is dark green with yellow eyes. The flesh is soft, white, sweet, low acid, and rich. Outstanding for fresh eating!

Antigua Black a.k.a Black Antigua
This variety is grown mostly in the Caribbean. The plant is vigorous with spiny leaves that become tinged with a reddish coloration in strong light. The fruit is conical-shaped with a dark green to orange shell when fully ripe. It can weigh up to 4 lbs ( 2 kilos ). The flesh is firm, yellow, sweet, low acid, and rich. Outstanding for fresh eating!

Pérola
This variety is grown extensively in Brazil. The plant is medium-sized and a vigorous grower with spiny, dark green leaves. It produces conical-shaped fruit weighing up to 2 lbs ( 1 kilo ). The fruit has a green shell with yellow eyes when ripe. The flesh is white, tender, fragrant, high in sugar, and rich in flavor. Outstanding for fresh eating!

Sugarloaf
There are several types of Sugarloaf plants. For example, a pineapple named 'Sugarloaf' in Hawaii may not be the same plant growing in Florida of the same name. Some plants have spiny leaves and while others are smooth. They all produce fruits that are conical or cylindrical in shape and may weigh up to 6 lbs ( 3 kilos ). The flesh is white to pale yellow, high in sugar, low in acid, with tender, edible cores. When ripe, the shell color is either green with yellow eyes or completely yellow-orange. Plants are vigorous growers producing many slips and/or suckers. Outstanding for fresh eating. Highly recommended!

Kaua'i White Sugarloaf
From the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i, this plant is vigorous with completely spineless green leaves that become tinged with purple in bright light. It produces cylindrical-shaped fruit weighing up to 4 lbs ( 2 kilos ). The flesh is firm, white, high in sugar, no acid, with a tender, edible core. When ripe, the shell color is green with yellow eyes. The fruit is slightly fragrant when ripe. Outstanding for fresh eating. Highly recommended!

White Jade
This plant is vigorous with spineless leaves that take on a reddish tinged in bright light. It produces cylindrical-shaped fruit weighing up to 4 lbs ( 2 kilos ). The flesh is firm, white, high in sugar, low in acid with an edible core. When ripe, the shell color is green with yellow eyes and fragrant. Outstanding for fresh eating. Highly recommended!

Pernambuco
This variety is grown mainly in Brazil. This plant has spiny leaves and produces fragrant fruit that weighs 2 to 4 lbs ( 1 to 2 kilos ). The fruit has a greenish-yellow shell when ripe. The flesh is white to pale yellow, juicy, tender, high in sugar, rich in flavor with a tender, edible core. Outstanding for fresh eating!

Spanish Samoa
I am growing this rare pineapple variety which is fruiting this year (2017) for the first time. The plant has spiny leaves, medium-sized, and vigorous. It produces small to medium size fruit weighing up to 2 lbs. The fruit has an intense pineapple smell and a bright yellow shell with when ripe. The flesh is yellow-white to gold, firm, sweet with a mild pineapple taste. The core is edible and crunchy.

Monte Lirio a.k.a. Cambray or Milagrena
The plant is vigorous with spineless leaves. The fruit is medium-sized and can weigh up to 2 ( 1 kilo). The flesh is white and sweet with a good balance of sugar and acid.

Cheese Pine
This rare pineapple variety has spiny leaves. It has been reported that the fruit has a high vitamin C content and a very sweet flavor.

Queen Victoria a.k.a. Victoria Gourmet or South African Baby
The plant is medium-sized and compact with stiff, spiny leaves. The fruit is small and can weigh up to 1 lb (.5 kilos). It has a yellow-orange shell when ripe. The flesh is yellow, richly flavored, moderately juicy, and very sweet with a tender, edible core. Outstanding for fresh eating!


Buy Pineapple Plants

Florida Hill Nursery This nursery sells many tropical and subtropical plants including five pineapple varieties.
Patioplants.com This nursery sells many tropical and subtropical plants including seven pineapple varieties.


Buy Fresh Pineapple Fruit

Kaua'i Sugarloaf pineapple fruit delivered fresh right to your door.
Maui Gold pineapple fruit delivered fresh right to your door.
Hawaiian Crown offers fresh and dried pineapple fruit shipped right to your door.


Pineapple Nutrition

Fresh pineapple fruit has about 82 percent water. It has important minerals like manganese, potassium, magnesium, and vitamins C, B1, B6. It also has important dietary fiber, antioxidants, and bioactive compounds such as bromelain. Bromelain is a protein digesting enzyme. It's the enzyme that is responsible for the burning sensation one feels on the lips and inside the mouth when fresh pineapple is consumed.


USDA Pineapple Collection

USDA Pineapple Collection The United States Department of Agriculture has a repository in Hilo, Hawaii for many tropical plants including pineapple. There are over 100 varieties of pineapple plants that are kept in the respository. Many varieties are not grown on a commercial scale. The USDA collection will not provide material to home gardeners, but will consider providing it to nursery owners if they have a demonstrated ability to propagate these varieties on a commercial scale. The USDA may also consider distributing to private researchers if they have a demonstrated ability to develop new varieties, or publish quality research that contributes to the body of knowledge on pineapple horticulture.

Bromeliad Links

Bromeliad Society International

Florida Council of Bromeliad Societies



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Last Revised October 21, 2017