|May 22, 2021: Cayenne pineapple plant with large fruit developing.|
|May 22, 2021: Spanish Samoa growing well with 1 fruit, 2 suckers and 2 slips.|
|May 22, 2021: Kauai Sugarloaf growing well with 1 large fruit, 2 suckers and 1 slip.|
|March 4, 2021: Queen Victoria fruit ready to be harvested.|
|February 20, 2021: Josapine is growing well.|
|February 20, 2021: Monte Lirio growing well and has developed a basal offshoot. It will be large enough to flower next year.|
|February 20, 2021: This large Kauai Sugarloaf plant was forced to flower in January.|
|February 20, 2021: Queen Victoria with developing fruit and 10 offshoots.|
|November 14, 2020: Starting from the front going clockwise are Josapine, Monte Lirio, Cheese Pine, Queen Victoria, Pernambuco, and Cayenne.|
|November 14, 2020: Cayenne pineapple is growing well. It will reach flowering size by February 2021.|
|July 29, 2020: Kauai Sugarloaf is growing well under a new led growlight. The Growcraft X3 330 watt DIY growlight kit by ChilLED Tech.|
|June 19, 2020: Kauai Sugarloaf flowering with four slips growing on the peduncle.|
|April 27, 2020: White Jade pineapple fruit was harvested. It weighed 3 lbs, 3oz. and the Brix reading was 23%.|
|April 26, 2020: Monte Lirio pineapple|
|April 26, 2020: Josapine pineapple|
|April 26, 2020: Cayenne sucker was planted in a 7 gallon pot.|
|April 26, 2020: Pernambuco pineapple growing in 5 gallon pot.|
|April 1, 2020: Cheese Pine pineapple growing well in 5 gallon pot.|
|April 1, 2020: Cayenne sucker growing on mother plant.|
|January 29, 2020: Spanish Samoa pineapple with developing fruit.|
|October 29, 2019: Cayenne Hilo harvest. The fruit weighed 4lbs, 7oz. It was sweet and juicy with a perfect sugar/acid ratio. The brix reading was 16%.|
|October 13, 2019: Pernambuco offshoots growing well in 6" pots.|
|October 13, 2019: Spanish Samoa in the red bud flowering stage. The white powder on the leaves is calcium carbide residue from forcing not mealy bugs.|
|October 7, 2019: Queen Victoria fruit harvest. The fruit was sweet and crunchy with an edible core and a Brix reading of 19%.|
|October 6, 2019: Queen Victoria with ripening fruit and sucker shoot.|
|October 6, 2019: Cayenne Hilo with large fruit. It should be ready to harvest in November.|
|August 17, 2019: I received two tissue cultured pineapple plants (Monte Lirio and Cheese Pine) from the USDA National Germplasm Repository in Hilo, Hawaii.|
|August 17, 2019: Cayenne Hilo with developing fruit.|
|August 17, 2019: Queen Victoria with fruit and sucker.|
|August 17, 2019: Three Pernambuco offshoots and one Josapine offshoot (lower left) with 1.5 months of growth.|
|June 28, 2019: Three Pernambuco offshoots and one Josapine offshoot (lower right).|
|June 28, 2019: Cayenne Hilo at the red bud flowering stage.|
|June 19, 2019: Sliced White Jade pineapple. It was sweet and juicy with low acidity. The Brix reading was 20 percent.|
|June 19, 2019: White Jade pineapple harvest. It weighed 2 pounds, 11.7 ounces.|
|June 16, 2019: Queen Victoria flowered naturally without forcing.|
|May 12, 2019: Kauai Sugarloaf pineapple sliced in half. It was very sweet and juicy with a Brix reading of 22 percent.|
|May 12, 2019: Kauai Sugarloaf pineapple harvest. It weighed 2 pounds 7.1 ounces.|
|May 11, 2019: Cayenne Hilo pineapple has reached forcing size.|
|May 11, 2019: Another White Jade pineapple with fruit. It will be ready to harvest in June.|
|May 11, 2019: Kauai Sugarloaf pineapple with ripening fruit.|
|April 24, 2019: A freshly harvested White Jade pineapple fruit. The fruit weighed 2 lbs, 14 oz with a brix reading of 19.|
|April 24, 2019: White Jade pineapple plant with ripe fruit.|
|January 20, 2019: White Jade plant with developing fruit and 3 slips.|
|December 16, 2018: White Jade pineapple inflorescence in the high cone stage.|
|December 16, 2018: This White Jade pineapple plant was started from a crown. It was forced recently.|
|December 16, 2018: A large Spanish Samoa sucker growing from the mother plant.|
|December 16, 2018: Cayenne Hilo pineapple growing vigorously under Black Dog PhytoMax-2 200 LED growlights. It will reach forcing size in April 2019.|
|December 1, 2018: Group A pineapples growing under Black Dog PhytoMax-2 200 LED growlights.|
|December 1, 2018: Group B pineapples growing under Diamond XML 150 LED growlights.|
|August 23, 2018: White Jade pineapple fruit harvested. It weighed 2 lbs, 14 ounces.|
|August 7, 2018: Spanish Samoa pineapple fruit harvest. It weighted 1 pound 9.5 ounces.|
|August 6, 2018: Spanish Samoa (at bottom) and White Jade pineapple plants in fruit.|
|August 2, 2018: Kauai pineapple fruit harvest. It weighed 2 pounds 2.1 ounces.|
|April 20, 2018: I planted this large Spanish Samoa sucker in December, 2017. I was surprised when I discovered a flower bud developing in the plant's center.|
|April 20, 2018: White Jade pineapple inflorescence in the 2nd stage (high cone) of development.|
|March 3, 2018: Kaua'i Sugarloaf pineapple in bloom.|
|February 3, 2018: Another Queen Victoria pineapple fruit ready to be harvested.|
|December 16, 2017: Queen Victoria pineapple cut in half. The fruit was firm, sweet, and juicy. The brix reading was 19%.|
|December 15, 2017: Queen Victoria with ripe fruit.|
|December 15, 2017: Queen Victoria with developing suckers and fruit.|
|October 9, 2017: Kaua'i pineapple cut into chunks. The fruit was very sweet with low acidity. The brix reading was 17%.|
|October 9, 2017: Harvested Kaua'i White Sugarloaf. This variety is green with yellow eyes when ripe.|
|September 1, 2017: Queen Victoria in the red bud flowering stage.|
|September 1, 2017: Kaua'i Sugarloaf with fruit and large sucker. The fruit should be ready to harvest around October.|
|July 30, 2017: Natal Queen fruit cut into chunks.|
|July 30, 2017: Natal Queen fruit harvested from plant. It weighed 1 pound, 7oz. The fruit was pleasantly sweet, moderately juicy, and crunchy|
|July 29, 2017: Queen Victoria has reached flowering size. It was forced with calcium carbide.|
|July 29, 2017: Natal Queen pineapple with ripe fruit.|
|July 23, 2017: Group B pineapples (3 White Jade, 1 Kaua'i Sugarloaf, 1 Queen Victoria) are now growing under LED lighting. The T5HO lighting fixture was replaced with two Diamond Series XML 150.|
|July 1, 2017: Spanish Samoa pineapple cut in half.|
|July 1, 2017: Spanish Samoa pineapple harvested. It weighed 1 lb 10 ounces.|
|June 27, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple cut in half. The fruit was slightly overripe with perfect sugar/acid balance. The Brix reading was 15.4%|
|June 27, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple harvested from plant. It weighed 4 lbs 3.8 ounces or almost 2 kilos.|
|June 25, 2017: This instrument, called a refractometer or Brix meter, is used in the agricultural industry to check the quality of fruits and vegetables. It measures the total of sugars, minerals, and other dissolved solids in the juice as a percentage. Ripe and nutrient dense fruits and vegetables will have the highest reading. For pineapple, a Brix measurement of 12 is poor, 14 is average, 20 is good, and 22 is excellent.|
|June 24, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple with ripening fruit.|
|June 17, 2017: Kaua'i Sugarloaf spiral flower cluster.|
|June 17, 2017: Natal pineapple with developing fruit and two suckers.|
|May 31, 2017: Spanish Samoa pineapple will be ready to harvest in July.|
|May 5, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple will be ready to harvest in late June.|
|April 1, 2017: Spanish Samoa pineapple fruit developing after flowering stage.|
|April 1, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple fruit developing after flowering stage.|
|February 23, 2017: Cayenne Hilo pineapple in the flowering stage.|
|February 23, 2017: Spanish Samoa pineapple flowered without being forced.|
|December 24, 2016: Group A pineapples ( 1 Queen Victoria, 1 Cayenne Hilo, 1 Natal, 1 Spanish Samoa, 1 Kaua'i Sugarloaf) are growing under two LED Diamond Series XML 150 fixtures.|
|December 24, 2016: Group B pineapples (3 White Jade, 1 Kaua'i Sugarloaf, 1 Queen Victoria) are growing under a T5HO 5000K fluorescent fixture (6 bulbs).|
|December 14, 2016: This Cayenne Hilo pineapple plant was forced with calcium carbide.|
|November 6, 2016: This White Jade pineapple will be ready to harvest in late December or early January.|
|November 6, 2016: White Jade pineapple fruit harvested.|
|October 21, 2016: White Jade pineapple plants in fruit for the first time.|
|October 11,2016: Harvested Kaua'i Sugarloaf fruit weighing 3 pounds.|
|June 22, 2016: White Jade inflorescence|
|May 27, 2016: Kaua'i Sugarloaf inflorescence appeared about 40 days after forcing.|
|May 1, 2016: This White Jade pineapple plant was forced on May 5th.|
|February 27, 2016: Gold Extra Sweet fruit was harvested. It weighed 3.5 pounds.|
|November 8, 2015: Cayenne Hilo transplanted to 5 gallon pot. It will reach flowering size in Fall 2016.|
|November 8, 2015: Queen Victoria crown planted in 1/2 gallon pot.|
|November 6, 2015: White Jade plants will reach flowering size in late Spring 2016.|
|November 3, 2015: Gold Hybrid inflorescence|
|October 23, 2015: Queen Victoria fruit cut in half.|
|October 23, 2015: Queen Victoria harvested.|
|September 25, 2015: Kaua'i White Sugarloaf fruit cut in half.|
|July 13, 2015: Kaua'i Sugarloaf with fruit.|
|June 5, 2015: Kaua'i Sugarloaf flowering.|
|May 31, 2015: A slightly overripe Sugarloaf fruit cut in half.|
|May 31, 2015: Harvested Sugarloaf fruit.|
|May 31, 2015: Sugarloaf plant with ripe fruit.|
|May 2, 2015: This Queen Victoria plant has reached flowering size. It will be forced in June.|
|January 23, 2015: Pineapples growing under Diamond Series XML 150 LED lighting system by Advance LED Lights.|
|January 23, 2015: Sugarloaf inflorescence|
|January 24, 2015: (clockwise from top) Cultivade Parana Pichuna, Cayenne Hilo, Spanish Samoa, and Natal are growing well under LED lights.|
|December 17, 2014: Kaua'i Sugarloaf growing very well. It will reach flowering size by April 2015.|
|October 27, 2014: White Jade transplanted to 5 gallon pot.|
|October 27, 2014: Cultivade Parana Pichuna, Cayenne Hilo, Spanish Samoa, and Natal were transplanted to 1/2 gallon pots.|
|October 25, 2014: Queen Victoria will reach flowering size by May 2015.|
|July 27, 2014: Sugarloaf will reach flowering size by November 2014.|
|July 26, 2014: Kaua'i Sugarloaf will reach flowering size by April 2015.|
|July 26, 2014: Gold fruit was harvested fully ripened. It was very sweet and juicy!|
|June 25, 2014: Cayenne Hilo, Cultivade Parana Pichuna, Spanish Samoa, and Natal|
|June 18, 2014: Gold crown growing well in 5 gallon pot. It should reach flowering size by June 2015.|
|June 7, 2014: White Jade pineapple plants growing in 1/2 gallon pots. Due to their size, plants will take approximately 2 years to reach maturity.|
|June 7, 2014: Gold sucker plant with fruit growing in a 5 gallon bucket.|
|April 11, 2014: A large gold crown was planted in a 5 gallon pot.|
|March 26, 2014: Gold fruit was harvested. It had the perfect balance of sugar and acid.|
|March 23, 2014: Since this Queen Victoria plant was started from a very small crown in 2013, it may take 24 months or more to reach flowering size.|
|March 20, 2014: I moved my pineapple plant collection to my new home.|
|October 7, 2013: Next year's crop will be borne on these two Gold Hybrid pineapple plants.|
|October 7, 2013: Sugarloaf fruit was harvested from plant. The fruit was very sweet with white to pale yellow, soft flesh.|
|October 3, 2013: Kaua'i Sugarloaf offshoot growing vigorously.|
|August 6, 2013: This crown was taken from a Kaua'i White Sugarloaf fruit I ordered online from Hawaii. Since the growing point was removed ( crown gouging ), this crown will have to sprout side shoots from the leaf axils to grow.|
|July 29, 2013: Sugarloaf fruit is gradually increasing in size.|
|July 7, 2013: Gold crown doing extremely well.|
|July 7, 2013: Gold sucker plant growing well.|
|July 4, 2013: Flowering has ceased and fruit development has begun.|
|June 24, 2013: Sugarloaf plant flowering. Notice the small shoots (slips ) growing below on the peduncle. These slips were later removed so more energy can go into fruit development.|
|June 27, 2013: Six slips were removed.|
|April 27, 2013: Gold sucker (left) and Gold crown (right). The sucker plant should reach flowering size in March 2014. The crown should be ready to flower in January 2014.|
|March, 2013: Huge sugarloaf plant will be ready for forcing in May 2013.|
|March, 2013: Gold crown growing well.|
|October 27, 2012: This Gold crown from the previous harvest was planted in a 3 gallon pot.|
|October 19, 2012: Gold pineapple fruit is ready to be harvested!|
|Picture taken September 8, 2012|
|July 26, 2012: Gold pineapple has finished flowering and fruit development has begun!|
|July 3, 2012: Gold pineapple has started flowering.|
|I bought this large Sugarloaf plant in May 2012. It was transplanted to a 12" (5 gallon) pot.|
|Gold Extra Sweet (MD-2 hybrid) April 22, 2012. This mature plant measures over 4 feet wide and 31" high. It was forced on May 14 with calcium carbide.|
Pineapple Collection 2018
|The pineapple (Ananas comosus) belongs to the bromeliaceae
family. It is a terrestrial (soil growing) bromeliad, and it is native to the
tropical and warm subtropical regions of Brazil and Paraguay.|
The pineapple is a slow-growing, herbaceous, perennial. It has a short stem which is covered by long, narrow, sword-shaped leaves arranged in a rosette pattern. Some varieties have spines along the leaf edges. The plant grows about 3 feet (100cm) in height and spreads up to 6 feet (183cm). A large plant can have as many as 80 leaves. At the time of flowering, a flower stalk appears from the plant's center bearing a reddish cone-shaped leaf cluster. A purple, red, or lavender flower appears between each leaf. Flowering starts from the bottom and progresses towards the top. No special pollination is required. The fruit is seedless; however, if two different varieties are grown near each other, the cross pollination produces tiny black seeds. The fruit slowly develops and ripens in 4 to 5 months after flowering.
|Obtain a pineapple fruit that has an unbruised, dark green leafy crown. Hold the fruit and grab the crown at the base and remove it by twisting it off. Pull a few of the bottom leaves off until 3/4" to 1" ( 1.9 to 2.5cm) of the stem is exposed. Along the exposed stem, roots will form. Set the crown aside for a few days in a warm, airy place out of direct sunlight until a callous forms. After that, the crown is ready to be planted.|
|Plant crown in a 5 gallon pot or plant a large sucker in a 7 gallon pot. Use a premium soil mix like Roots Organic Original potting soil. It is well-drained, porous, and moisture retentive with no wetting agents added. Gently firm the soil up around the plant's base to support it. Move to a warm, bright area with filtered sunlight. Keep the soil moist, not wet. About 4 to 8 weeks later, the leaves will begin to grow out. Gradually introduce to full sun.|
|Pineapple plants respond well to regular fertilizer applications to the soil or foliage.
Pineapples have a high demand for nitrogen and potassium especially during the flowering and fruiting cycle.
Apply a 10-6-10 or similar slow release, non-burning dry fertilizer with trace elements to the soil every 3 months. Foliar applications
of fertilizer should be diluted 1/4 to 1/2 strength and sprayed on the leaves every 3 weeks.
|There seems to be a common misconception that all bromeliads like water
poured in the center of the plant. This is NOT true! The "tank" bromeliads,
like Aechema fasciata, need water held in the center. When water remains in the
center of a pineapple plant, it can lead to rot. Water the soil thoroughly
until it drains into the bottom saucer. Don't let water stand in saucer. Allow
the soil to dry slightly between waterings.
Bromeliads like the pH of the water to be slightly acidic. Check with your local water department to find out about the pH. If your water is hard (alkaline), add 1 tsp of vinegar per gallon of water.
|Pineapples enjoy evenly warm temperatures all year long. A warm growing environment with a daily average temperature
between 75°F (24°C) and 80°F (26°C) is optimal for excellent growth and fruiting. Move plants outdoors when both
days and nights are consistently warm. Plants can tolerate occasional lows in
the 50's (10°C - 15°C), but prefer 60's (16°C - 20°C). Highs
should be 75°F to 90°F (24°C to 32°C). When temperatures reach
90°F (32°C) or more, plants should be placed in filtered sunlight to
Humidity can be a problem indoors during the heating season. The humidity level should be maintained around 50%. A room humidifier placed on a timer provides an effective way of maintaining humidity levels.
|These plants are growing under a six bulb T5 high output fluorescent lighting fixture.|
|Having adequate light indoors is absolutely essential for good growth
and fruiting. Pineapple plants require at least 12 hours of bright light a day. Artificial lighting can be used as the only light source
or a supplementation to natural daylight.
High intensity discharge, T5 high output, and LED lighting systems are excellent choices for growing pineapples. Check out my online garden suppliers page.
When it is time for your pineapple plant to go outdoors for the summer or indoors for the winter, it needs to be acclimated to its new environment. The plant should gradually be introduced to more shade over a period 3 weeks before going indoors. When going outdoors, place plant under a shade cloth or in an area that only receives the weak morning or evening sun. Over a period of 3 weeks, gradually introduce to more sunlight.
|When leaves start getting out of bounds, prune them back with a sharp pair of scissors. Cut the leaf straight across then shape the cut like an arrow. This will make the pruned leaf look more natural. To remove yellowing and dead leaves, split them straight down the middle and pull apart from the stem.|
|Indoor pineapple plants are not usually bothered by many pests or diseases.
However, mealy bugs and scale insects do attack them. These pests can be
effectively controlled by using a 1% to 2% light horticultural oil spray or neem oil.
Fungus gnats can be a real nuisance indoors. They love damp areas and moist soil rich in organic matter. The adults fly around and lay eggs in the soil. Then a few days later, the larvae emerge damaging young roots. There are two effective controls: biological, Gnatrol WDG, and predatory mites, Hypoaspis, that feed on gnat larvae.
Diseases that appear on indoor pineapple plants are sometimes due to incorrect cultural practices. Overwatering can cause root rot. Heart rot can happen if water is poured and allowed to stay in the plant's center for long periods of time. Leaves staying wet from misting without adequate air circulation can encourage leaf spot disease if spores are present.
Anthracnose is a fungal disease which attacks the leaves. When conditions are favorable ( cool and wet ), it first appears as a brown patch or streak on the underside of the leaf. Then, the leaf's surface becomes discolored with pale yellow to brown spots. An effective preventative and control for this disease is neem oil.
|Leaf edges curl under||Low humidity, underwatering, acclimation||Buy humidifier to increase relative indoor humidity, water when the top 2" (5cm) of soil is moderately dry, gradually introduce plant to new environment|
|Brown spots on leaves||Fertilizer burn, salts in water||Fertilizer should be slow release, use distilled water or clean rainwater|
|Small brown or black lesions on leaves||Fungal infection, Anthracnose||Cool, wet conditions favor growth, avoid wetting leaves, temps above 80°F retard fungal growth, use neem oil or biofungicide|
|No plant growth||Cool temps, underwatering, overwatering, low light or not enough light||A mean temp between 75°F (24°C) and 80°F (26°C) is optimal for excellent growth, check rootball, water when the top 2" (5cm) of soil is moderately dry, move to brighter area|
|Brown leaf tips||Low humidity, fertilizer burn, underwatering||Buy humidifier to increase humidity, fertilizer should be slow release to avoid burning, water when the top 2" (5cm) of soil is moderately dry|
|Fruit not large||Plant was forced to bloom when young, inadequate leaf surface||Force bloom when the plant has a minimum of 35 mature leaves on it. Plant should measure 2 to 4 feet across depending on variety. This insures a decent fruit size.|
|Yellowish, white, or red spots on leaves||Mealy bugs or scale insects||Look for pests in the leaf axils and treat with a light oil spray or neem oil.|
|Lower leaves yellow and dry up||Underwatering, rootbound, acclimation (high light to low light), dimming artificial light||Water when the top 2" (5cm) of soil is moderately dry, check rootball and repot if necessary, gradually introduce plant to a new environment, change light bulb|
|Yellow-green leaves||Nitrogen deficiency, root rot, improper acclimation- low light to high light||Use a 2-1-2 ratio fertilizer preferable organic, check rootball and let it moderately dry out between waterings, gradually introduce plant to a new environment|
|Leaves turn brown/yellow starting at tip||Soil remaining wet too long||Allow soil to dry slightly between waterings, use an airy, well-drained potting soil mix|
|There are six stages of pineapple flower development. Stage 1: Red bud stage.|
|This is stage 2: High cone stage. Peduncle grows from the center.|
|This is stage 3: Flowering at the base.|
|This is stage 4: Flowering in the middle.|
|This is stage 5: Flowering at the top.|
|This is stage 6: Dried flowers|
|Natural flowering in mature pineapple plants can be influenced by day length,
cool temperatures, or water stress. The type of propagating material used can also be a factor, especially for indoor growers.
Plants propagated from suckers tend to flower more freely. Under general indoor cultivation, pineapple plants seldom flower on their
The flowering cycle can be initiated through a technique known as "forcing". Forcing can be achieved by using plant growth regulators, calcium carbide, acetylene gas, or ethylene gas.
Chemical growth regulators such as Ethephon, Florel, and Omaflora are used commercially. These chemicals are mixed with water and sprayed on the plants.
Calcium carbide is sensitive to moisture and needs to be handled with caution. A small bean-sized lump of calcium carbide is added to the plant's center, then water is added. A violent reaction takes place releasing acetylene gas into the water and air. This gas is flammable and smells like garlic.
Ethylene gas is produced naturally from apples, pears, peaches, and other fruits. To maximize ethylene exposure, place ripening fruit at base of plant for one week.
After forcing is done, center leaf production ceases and the flower cycle begins. Approximately 40 to 60 days later, a flower cluster should appear in the plant's center.
Forcing is most effective when done during cool to moderate temperatures (60's to low 70's/16°C-23°C) and at night.
Sugarloaf pineapple fruit harvested in October 2013.
Sugarloaf pineapple sliced in half and crown.
Gold Hybrid pineapple fruit harvested in October 2012.
|For maximum sweetness and flavor, it is best to pick the fruit when it is fully ripe. Once the fruit is harvested, it will not improve in quality! Depending upon the variety grown, a ripe pineapple can either be yellow-orange, orange-red, yellow, red, green, or purple. To harvest fruit, use a sharp knife or pruning shears and cut stalk one inch below the fruit.|
Gold mother plant with one large and one small sucker growing at the plant's base.
This slip was growing from the fruit's base.
A sucker growing from the mother plant.
Harvested sucker cut from plant.
Healthy roots have begun to form at the base.
Healthy root system of the mother plant.
|Pineapple plants, like all bromeliads, slowly fade away after
flowering. Before this happens, the plants will produce one or more types of
leafy offshoots: crowns, slips, suckers, and ratoons. Crowns are shoots which
grow on the tops of the pineapple fruits. Slips are shoots which grow on the
flowering stalk. Suckers are shoots which originate from the leaf axil on the
stem above ground, and ratoons are suckers that grow from the stem below soil level.
Crowns should be the first type of propagating material used if you want to establish new plants quickly. If you want fruit sooner, suckers and ratoons are better choices. They are generally larger, stronger, and mature faster than crowns. Remove suckers with a sharp, serrated knife when they're at least half the size of the mother plant. Plant suckers the same way as crowns. Slips can be numerous on some pineapple varieties, like as Sugarloaf. If you want your fruit to be as large as possible remove them while small. If you want more plants, use crowns, suckers, and ratoons.
|There are hundreds of pineapple varieties but only a few dozen are good enough to be grown on a commercial scale. There are four group classifications a pineapple variety can fall into: Pernambuco, Spanish, Queen, or Cayenne. Each group has some characteristics that are different than the other and there are some differences within the groups as well.|
|Cayenne or Smooth Cayenne|
|This plant is large with nearly spineless leaves that take on a reddish coloration in strong light. It can bear fruit weighing up to 6 lbs ( 3 kilos ). The fruit has a good balance of sugar and acid. Cayenne is the main processing and canning variety.|
|This plant is large with more spines on the leaves than Smooth Cayenne. The leaves develop a reddish coloration in strong light. It can bear fruit weighing up to 6 lbs ( 3 kilos ). The fruit has a yellow shell and strong fragrance when ripe. It has an excellence balance of sugar and acid. The flesh is yellow, soft, slightly translucent and very juicy. Outstanding for fresh eating!|
|Gold Extra Sweet (MD-2 Hybrid)|
|This variety is a hybrid of Smooth Cayenne. It has become the commercial standard in the industry. The plant is large and vigorous with nearly spineless, stiff leaves. The fruit can weigh up to 4 lbs ( 2 kilos ), and it has an yellow-orange shell when ripe. The flesh is yellow, very sweet, juicy and low in acid. Outstanding for fresh eating! Highly recommended!|
|Maui Gold (MD-1 or CO-2 Hybrid)|
|This variety is a hybrid of Smooth Cayenne. This variety is grown exclusively on a commercial scale in Hawaii. The plant is large and vigorous with nearly spineless, stiff leaves. The fruit can weigh up to 4 lbs ( 2 kilos ), and it has an yellow-orange shell when ripe. The flesh is yellow, very sweet, juicy and low in acid. Outstanding for fresh eating! Highly recommended!|
|This plant is small and compact with spiny leaves that become tinged with a reddish-purple coloration in strong light. The fruit weighs up to 2 lbs ( 1 kilo ) and has a golden-yellow shell when ripe. The flesh is yellow, sweet, moderately juicy, and pleasantly crisp. It stores very well. Good for fresh eating.|
|This variety is grown mostly in the Caribbean. The plant is large, vigorous with spiny leaves that become tinged with a reddish coloration in strong light. The fruit has an orange-red shell when ripe and can weigh 2 to 4 lbs ( 1 to 2 kilos ). The flesh is pale yellow, pleasantly sweet, moderately acidic, fragrant, and rich.|
|I started growing this variety in June 2019. This Malaysian variety is a hybrid between Singapore Spanish and Smooth Cayenne. The plant is medium-sized, vigorous with nearly spineless leaves that become tinged with a reddish coloration in strong light. The fruit has an orange-red shell when ripe and can weigh around 2 lbs ( 1 kilo ). The flesh is yellow, pleasantly sweet, low acid, and fragrant.|
|This variety is grown mostly in Brazil. The plant is vigorous with spiny leaves that become tinged with a reddish coloration in strong light. The fruit is conical-shaped and can weigh up to 6 lbs. When ripe, the shell color is dark green with yellow eyes. The flesh is soft, white, sweet, low acid, and rich. Outstanding for fresh eating!|
|Antigua Black a.k.a Black Antigua|
|This variety is grown mostly in the Caribbean. The plant is vigorous with spiny leaves that become tinged with a reddish coloration in strong light. The fruit is conical-shaped with a dark green to orange shell when fully ripe. It can weigh up to 4 lbs ( 2 kilos ). The flesh is firm, yellow, sweet, low acid, and rich. Outstanding for fresh eating!|
|This variety is grown extensively in Brazil. The plant is medium-sized and a vigorous grower with spiny, dark green leaves. It produces conical-shaped fruit weighing up to 2 lbs ( 1 kilo ). The fruit has a green shell with yellow eyes when ripe. The flesh is white, tender, fragrant, high in sugar, and rich in flavor. Outstanding for fresh eating!|
|There are several types of Sugarloaf plants. For example, a pineapple named 'Sugarloaf' in Hawaii may not be the same plant growing in Florida of the same name. Some plants have spiny leaves and while others are smooth. They all produce fruits that are conical or cylindrical in shape and may weigh up to 6 lbs ( 3 kilos ). The flesh is white to pale yellow, high in sugar, low in acid, with tender, edible cores. When ripe, the shell color is either green with yellow eyes or completely yellow-orange. Plants are vigorous growers producing many slips and/or suckers. Outstanding for fresh eating. Highly recommended!|
|Kaua'i White Sugarloaf|
|From the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i, this plant is large, vigorous with completely spineless green leaves that become tinged with reddish purple in bright light. It produces slips and suckers. The fruit is cylindrical-shaped and can weigh up to 4 lbs ( 2 kilos ). The flesh is firm, white, high in sugar, no acid, with a tender, edible core. When ripe, the shell color is green with yellow eyes. The fruit is fragrant when ripe. Outstanding for fresh eating. Highly recommended!|
|This plant is large and vigorous with spineless leaves that take on a reddish purple tinged in bright light. It produces cylindrical-shaped fruit weighing up to 4 lbs ( 2 kilos ). The flesh is firm, white, high in sugar, low in acid with an edible core. When ripe, the shell color is green with yellow eyes and fragrant. Outstanding for fresh eating. Highly recommended!|
|I started growing this variety in June 2019. It is grown mainly in Brazil. This plant is moderately vigorous with spiny leaves that are tinged with reddish purple. The fruit weighs 2 to 4 lbs (1 to 2 kilos). It has a yellowish-green shell when ripe. The flesh is soft, white to pale yellow, juicy, high in sugar, rich in flavor with a tender, edible core. Outstanding for fresh eating!|
|I am growing this rare pineapple variety which is fruiting this year (2017) for the first time. The plant has spiny leaves, medium-sized, and vigorous. It produces small to medium size fruit weighing up to 2 lbs. The fruit has an intense pineapple smell and a bright yellow shell with when ripe. The flesh is yellow-gold, firm with a pleasant flavor and a perfect sugar/acid balance. The core is edible and crunchy. The plant has a strong tendacy to natural flowering. Outstanding for fresh eating!|
|Monte Lirio a.k.a. Cambray or Milagrena|
|I started growing this variety in August 2019. The plant is moderately vigorous with spineless leaves. The fruit is medium-sized and can weigh up to 2 lbs ( 1 kilo). The flesh is white and sweet with a good balance of sugar and acid.|
|I started growing this rare variety in August 2019. The plant is vigorous with spiny leaves. It has been reported that the fruit has a high vitamin C content and a very sweet flavor.|
|Queen Victoria a.k.a. Victoria Gourmet or South African Baby|
|The plant is medium-sized and compact with stiff, spiny leaves. It produces numerous suckers. The fruit is small and can weigh up to 1 lb (.5 kilos). It has a yellow-orange shell when ripe. The flesh is yellow, richly flavored, moderately juicy, and very sweet with a tender, edible core. Outstanding for fresh eating!|
|Florida Hill Nursery This nursery sells many tropical and subtropical plants including a few pineapple varieties.|
|Kaua'i Sugarloaf pineapple fruit delivered fresh right to your door.|
|Maui Gold pineapple fruit delivered fresh right to your door.|
|Hawaiian Crown offers fresh and dried pineapple fruit shipped right to your door.|
|Fresh pineapple fruit has about 82 percent water. It has important minerals like manganese, potassium, magnesium, and vitamins C, B1, B6. It also has important dietary fiber, antioxidants, and bioactive compounds such as bromelain. Bromelain is a protein digesting enzyme. It's the enzyme that is responsible for the burning sensation one feels on the lips and inside the mouth when fresh pineapple is consumed.|
|USDA Pineapple Collection The United States Department of Agriculture has a repository in Hilo, Hawaii for many tropical plants including pineapple. There are over 100 varieties of pineapple plants that are kept in the respository. Many varieties are not grown on a commercial scale. The USDA collection will not provide material to home gardeners, but will consider providing it to nursery owners if they have a demonstrated ability to propagate these varieties on a commercial scale. The USDA may also consider distributing to private researchers if they have a demonstrated ability to develop new varieties, or publish quality research that contributes to the body of knowledge on pineapple horticulture.|
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Last Revised May 22, 2021